Updated: Mar 25, 2021
Coffee at Work
Let's briefly touch on the debate that coffee is healthy, not healthy - and the ROI of coffee at work. We will also touch on some techniques to level up your coffee game. Coffee is an integral part of most people's daily ritual. There are many controversies and opinions about coffee, but love it or hate it, coffee seems to be firmly here to stay.
64% of American adults currently consume coffee every day.
An average American drinks 3.1 cups of coffee per day.
Americans drink about 400 million cups of coffee every day.
66% of women drink coffee every day, compared to 62% of men.
79% of Americans prepare coffee at home.
About 35% of coffee consumers usually drink black coffee.
45% of US coffee consumers brew their coffee by a drip coffee maker.
Robusta beans have a higher caffeine content than Arabica beans.
Coffee is the 2nd biggest commodity globally only after oil
Thomas Jefferson declared coffee ‘The favorite drink of the civilized world’
The stimulating effect of caffeine has been known for a thousand years. Legend describes its discovery by herders in Ethiopia who observed the energising effects on their goats when they ate the berries of coffee plants. The first European to mention coffee was Leonhart Rauwolff, a German physician, in 1582 on his return from Mesopotamia in search of herbal remedies. In his book “Aigentliche Beschreibung der Raiß inn die Morgenländer” he described “A very good drink that is as black as ink and very good in illness, especially of the stomach.” The first coffee house was in Constantinople (1555), but rapid promotion of this “black medicine” followed throughout Europe in the 17th century in Venice, Hamburg, Vienna, Amsterdam, and Paris. Today coffee houses enjoy prominence on the high streets of every European city.
The medical benefits of coffee are debatable. Detractors suggest that it increases blood pressure and hypertension, though recent meta-analyses concluded that evidence is weak and no recommendation for or against can be made. Others have described beneficial effects of regular coffee drinking such as reduced risk of diabetes mellitus, Parkinson’s disease, hepatic cirrhosis, rectal cancer, suicide, and cardiovascular disease, as well as an overall reduced mortality.
The stimulating effect of caffeine is also well known, and doctors, who often work long hours, sometimes depend on the stimulation of coffee to perform at their best. Perhaps tellingly the “fatigue management strategy” of Queensland Health (Australia) suggests the “strategic use of caffeine” in tired and overworked doctors. They proposed 400 mg of caffeine per working day to stay awake in the job. This is a huge dose, equivalent to six cups of coffee.
Coffee is Healthy
1. Improves your brain function
As we've already discussed, most popular stimulant in coffee is caffeine, and actually the key reason why coffee boosts your brain functioning in short term (1).
It's mainly believed to be due to the way caffeine interacts with adenosine receptors, neurotransmitters in the brain that make you sleep.
A handful of studies found that adenosine largely builds up during the day and makes you feel dozy during the night time (2, 3).
Caffeine mainly fights with the adenosine to stop it from binding to its receptors and avert it from slowing your brain functioning.
Interestingly, it also stimulates the brain for the release of other neurotransmitters to improve several other aspects of your brain including mood, attention, learning and overall brain functioning.
However, over the time, you may become tolerant to the effect of caffeine and you'll have to ingest the more coffee to experience the same spark, suggests to a study by Psychopharmacology.
2. Makes you smarter
Coffee doesn't just keep you awake, it may also make you smarter.
You might be surprise to know, if you love the smell of coffee, you'll probably perform better than your peers, reports a study by Journal by Environmental Psychology.
Another study led out by Stevens School of Business along with researchers at Temple University and Baruch College, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the coffee scent could be strong enough to boost the cognitive performance of an individual.
In the first study, the researchers gave a 10-question GMAT (a computer adaptive test required by many business schools) Algebra test to nearly 100 under-graduate students and divided the them into two groups.
As a result of this experiment, the researchers found that the students who gave the test in coffee like-scent room performed extremely better than the students who gave the test in an unscented room.
3. Helps you in burning fat faster
Caffeine is one of the most important substances that's largely used in most commercial fat burning supplements - and for good reason.
It can directly stimulate the adrenaline to promote fat-breakdown and release it into the blood. It does so by increasing the blood level of adrenaline hormones (4, 5).
However, this release of fats into blood doesn't ensure that you'll lose weight, of course, this will only be possible if your body burn more calories than you're consuming every day.
According to a study by the American Journal of Physiology, caffeine consumption could increase fat-burning as much as 29% in lean people and about 10% in obese individuals.
The best thing about caffeine, it can increase the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by 3-11% which makes it easier for you to eat more food without worrying about gaining weight further.
4. Reduces of risk of dementia
Coffee is more than just an enjoyable drink, it may even reduce the chances of developing dementia by 36%, found one study carried out by researchers of University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
The study followed the 6467 women (aged 65+) for over 10 years and found that women who consumed an average of 261 mg (about 3 cups of coffee) of caffeine a day are at lower risk of developing probable dementia than women who consumed lower level of caffeine.
Another 2012 key study in Florida reported that people who didn't suffer from dementia had two times more caffeine in their blood than those who had.
However, it's important to note that the above studies only suggest there's a link between caffeine and lower risk of probable dementia or cognitive impairment but it can't be consider as definitive judgement as it still requires more research to figure out exactly how caffeine can help against dementia.
5. May decrease the risk of depression
Depression affects everybody's life no matter what their background is. The National Institute of Mental Health reports that nearly 17.3 million adults in the United States had at least one major depressive episode.
However, new research carried out by Harvard School of Public Health researchers had satisfactory outcomes, they found, the affect of depression appears to be decreased with the increase in caffeine consumption.
The researchers studied 50,739 women (average 63 years old) who drank 4 or more cups of caffeinated coffee had experienced 20% lower risk of depression than women who drank little or no coffee at all.
Another study found a link between coffee consumption and decreased risk for depression.
6. Reduces the risk for developing type 2 diabetes
Whether you're trying to lower your risk or you already have diabetes, this is good news for you that compelling researches on coffee and diabetes suggest that increasing your coffee consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Chinese researchers think this might be due to three active compounds (caffeine, caffeic, and chlorogenic acid) in coffee which can block the toxic accumulation of protein which is believed to be responsible for increasing the risk for type 2 diabetes, reports WebMD.
However, the benefits of coffee varies for diabetes in certain cases.
Researchers at Harvard tracked over 100,000 people for a period of 20-years and according to the results of 4-year concentration, published in a 2014 study, people who increased their coffee ingestion by over a cup per day had an 11% less risks for developing type 2 diabetes.
Conversely, the risk had increased by 17% in people who reduced their coffee consumption by one cup per day.
Additionally, a study by The LANCET suggested that coffee consumption has been shown to acutely reduce insulin sensitivity and associated with a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
Keep in mind, no food or supplement ensures full protection against type 2 diabetes, however, moderate coffee consumption may reduce its possibilities of evolving further.
7. Lowers the risks of certain type of cancers
As we've already discussed coffee has been claimed to be responsible for causing cancer, in some earlier studies.
But now larger and better designed studies have shunned all those findings and concluded that coffee is mainly associated with the lowered risk of certain types of cancers including prostate cancer, liver cancer, some cancer of mouth and throat and endometrial cancer, says Cancer.org
And it's due to acrylamide, a chemical that mainly forms during the coffee roasting process, however, the exact mechanism how it protects against cancer is still unknown.
American Cancer Society experts; Susan Gapstur and Marjorie McCullough say that more research is needed to figure out the exact biological mechanism linked among coffee drinking, acrylamide exposure and cancer risks.
8. May delay the onset of Alzheimer's
New study on coffee and Alzheimer's found that coffee may delay the onset of Alzheimer's by 50%, reports Alzheimer's.net.
However, it's still unknown how coffee does so, but Chuanhai Cao, PhD, a neuroscientist at the University of South Florida's College has theory that it does so by reducing the amount of beta-amyloid, a protein which is found in the brain of Alzheimer's patients.
The neuroscientist Chuanhai Cao added:
Caffeine inhibits the production of beta-amyloid, so your system only metabolizes all of the available protein.
He also mentioned:
There is no reason to stop drinking coffee if you are experiencing memory problems.
Chuanhai Cao suggested from the result of the study that older adults who drink moderate level (about 3 cups) of coffee a day will not be suffered from Alzheimer's or at least experience a noticeable delay before converting to it.
9. Reduces risk of Parkinson's Disease
Nearly 60,000 Americans are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease each year, reports Parkinson.org.
Currently, there's no cure for it and modern treatment can only help fighting against the symptoms. However, studies over the years suggested that coffee might help reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease (6).
According to a recent study by Krembil Brain Institute, drinking coffee may protect you against both Alzhemier's and Parkinson's disease. The researchers mentioned that the components in the coffee can be beneficial for warding off cognitive decline but can't be considered as cure, absolutely not!
10. At times excellent for liver’s functionality
Coffee might be really good for you in many other ways but especially for liver, says WebMD. Researcher found that java drinkers might be less likely to develop liver cancer and other related diseases.
A recent study led by Emily Hu reported that people who drank 3 or more cups of coffee a day, had 21% less chances for hospitalizing for any liver-related illness.
In fact, World Journal of Hepatology referred coffee as magical bean for liver diseases.
11. Reduces the risk of stroke
If you're coffee lover, this is also a good news for you because recent studies on coffee also supports that it doesn't cause or increase of stroke if you're good in health (7).
In fact, multiple research found consumption of 2-4 cups of coffee may reduce the risk of stroke and it's mainly believed to be due to the way coffee changes the blood vessels in physiology and alters the blood flow in a way that it helps prevent hypertension (8).
You may also be surprised to know that coffee can be beneficial for people who have already experienced. In one experiment, it was found that patients who consumed enough caffeine, performed well in postural balance than they had done before ingesting caffeine.
12. May improve your gut health
"If you love coffee, enjoy it. Follow your gut, says Dr. Li Jiao, an associate professor of medicine-gastroenterology at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.
A team of researchers led by Dr. Li Jiao presented in their recently carried out study that drinking coffee can provide healthier gut microbiome.
The Jiao's team followed the 34 participants, found that who consumed several cups of coffee per day have better gut health microbiomes profiles than those who drank smaller amount or no coffee at all.
However, Dr. Jiao mentioned, it still requires more research to find out how bacteria and our bodies interact to impact our health.
13. Lowers the rate of dying at an early age
Study after study shows that coffee is actually good for you.
Now a 2017 study, published in European Society of Cardiology found that higher coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death at early ages. Period.
This study analyzed nearly 20,000 participants (average 37.7 years old) for a period of 10 years. In this duration 337 individuals died, the researchers found that people who drank at least 4 cups of coffee a day had 67% lower chances of death at early ages than those who consumed lower or almost never consumed coffee.
Another study published in Annals of Internal Medicine found that increased coffee consumption was associated with lower risk for cause-specific mortality among non-white populations.
Despite being one of the healthiest caffeinated beverages in the world, coffee can still can't be the part of medicine required for healing.
Coffee is not Healthy
1. May cause miscarriage or pregnancy loss
Pregnancy seems like a scary time not only because all of a sudden you're carrying a tiny infant inside you but also because there are hundreds of people try to terrify you with their hair-raising stories.
But if you're a java lover, you must be aware whether drinking coffee is safe during your pregnancy or not.
According to the various news sources, women who are trying to perceive or are pregnant should cut out caffeine entirely especially during the first 8 weeks, because even an occasional coffee consumption can cause a miscarriage or pregnancy loss.
However, the science isn't quite as alarming as it sounds. This isn't the first study of caffeine use in pregnancy, it's not even the biggest one to the date.
Overall, best evidences seem to indicate that smaller caffeine consumption is unlikely to cause any risk of miscarriage, but we also can't rule out the risk completely (9, 10, 11, 12).
The convincing research on caffeine indicates that only the higher caffeine consumption can cause babies to have to low birth weights. This is why, leading organization like World Health Organization and National Health Service suggest pregnant women limit the coffee ingestion by 200 mg, about 2 cups a day.
It's worth noting that amount of caffeine varies a lot in different types of coffee. For instance, a cup of instant coffee has pretty standardized but espresso can have a little or far more caffeine in it, depending on the range of factors.
2. May cause bone mass loss
Some observational studies found that drinking coffee can drain calcium from your body and contribute to osteoporosis. However, other studies on coffee and bone mass didn't find such a link.
In particular, a 2013 Swedish study followed 61,000 women roughly for 20 years. It was found that drinking 4 cups of coffee or more was associated with a minimal reduction in bone mass but it wasn't associated to an increased risk of fracture any way.
Even the consumption of 8 cups of coffee a day "isn't linked to significant concern regarding risk of fracture and fall" reports a 2017 study by Food and Chemical Toxicology.
So, you need to worry about losing bone mass with caffeine consumption only if you aren't getting enough calcium from other sources in its first place.
3. May increase the level of anxiety in sensitive people
You already know, over consumption of caffeine can make you feel jittery and nervous. Overall, the caffeine consumption is bad for people with anxiety, say Susan Albert Bowling.
The natural effect of caffeine can trigger a host of sensations, such as your heart beats faster, your body begins to heat up, your breathing rate becomes noticeably faster - all that sparks the sensation of anxiety.
According to Susan Bowling (a psychologist at the Women Health Centre), consuming more than 200 mg of caffeine per day can increase the chances of anxiety and panic attacks in people who are sensitive to it.
So, If you're prone to post-caffeine anxiety feelings, you should eliminate all caffeine consumption while keeping the rest of your diet and activities the same.
On the bright side, if you're not struggling with anxiety, there's no need cut back on caffeinated coffee, says Lauren Slayton, RDN.
4. Caffeine withdrawal may cause mental disorder
This might be shocking for you, but the caffeine withdrawal is very real and produce enough physical symptoms, reports WebMD.
In other words, people who don't get usual dose of caffeine, there are chances, they can be suffered from a range of short and long-term withdrawal symptoms.
Headache is very common, at least 50% of people experience this in caffeine withdrawal
It's effect would be minimal or as much severe as you won't be able to leave your house, won't be able to function properly, Griffiths told WebMD.
Should you quit?
Experts on WebMD.com say that caffeine withdrawal produce physical symptoms, doesn't mean it's dangerous. You can stop drinking coffee but the best way is with a gradual withdrawal.
Just don't quit immediately otherwise it may cause more physical symptoms than usual.
5. May dramatically increase your blood pressure
Caffeine can cause short but obvious increase in blood pressure even if you never had higher blood pressure before.
It's still unclear what causes this spike in blood pressure level, says MayoClinic. However, some researchers believe that caffeine does so by blocking a hormone that's responsible for keeping your arteries widened.
Coffee drinkers usually have higher blood pressure than other people but with the time, people develop tolerance to caffeine so this doesn't cause a long-term effect on their blood pressure.
If you're concerned about caffeine's effect on your blood pressure, it's always suggested to limit your caffeine consumption by keeping it below 200 mg per day.
Also avoid consuming caffeine before activities which cause an increase in blood pressure such as exercise, weightlifting or other hard physical laboring.
6. Caffeine can affect your sleep badly
Caffeine can have a disruptive effect on your sleep. In other words, it can make it harder for you to fall asleep or you may wake up more often while sleeping.
According to a study published in Science Translation Medicine, caffeine can disturb the timing of your sleeping clock. This not only reduces your sleeping hours but also affects its quality.
Another study by JCSM, reports that consuming caffeine 6 hours before your sleep time can reduce your total sleep by 1 hour.
In order to reduce its negative effect on your sleeping, try limiting its consumption or avoid taking it before your sleeping hours. You can drink it during the day time like at 2PM, this will given enough time to metabolize caffeine in your body so you'd be able to sleep better during nights.
7. Can stain your teeth
Frequent coffee consumption may stain your teeth.
Tannins that are most commonly found in red wines, are also present in your coffee. These cause color compounds to stick to your teeth and leave an unwanted yellow hue behind that's difficult to remove.
The more coffee you'll consume, the more your teeth will become yellow.
In order to get rid of stains, drink plenty of water, try brushing your teeth with baking soda twice a month and schedule your regular appointments with your dentist. This may even whiten your teeth within a couple of months.
Coffee at Work
Coffee at Work Facts
Office workers are one of the biggest groups of coffee drinkers in the USA. According to our pals over at Hamilton Beach, the average US office employee drinks 20 cups of coffee per week. Which is a huge 1040 cups per year!
Interestingly, Europeans drink more coffee at work than people in the USA. There, a whopping 52% of coffee consumed outside the home is drunk in the office. In fact, according to GlobeNewsWire, office coffee consumption is growing in almost every country worldwide.
While we’re on international work coffee consumption, Italy is interesting. Because they have a coffee bar culture, only 36% of the coffee they drink is enjoyed at work. That’s really low compared to similar European and Latin countries.
This is a fun one: the average American worker spends about 24 minutes per day making and drinking coffee and wandering to and from the coffee area, according to Statista. Sometimes intentionally slowly if my time in an office is anything to go by. Anyway, over the average working life that adds up to about 190 days.
Coffee Business Intelligence also notes that large businesses have big, automatic coffee machines. Smaller businesses have really taken to capsule coffee machines, and that has pushed coffee consumption in the sector.
The most widely used brewing method at work is still a drip machine, though that’s changing. Drip coffee accounts for 54% of work coffee. Espresso is now a (trailing) second with 24% according to Statista. It seems logical that the rise in pod machines have contributed to espresso being available at work, though I couldn’t confirm the connection.
Workers who drink coffee are often more productive than those who go without. So you make up for those 190 days. Maybe walk slower next time, or have a longer chat over the Nespresso machine.
Income (and therefore probably class) has an impact on how much coffee people drink. Of those Americans making under $30k per year, 58% drink coffee. Over $30k, and that number is 66%. But, here’s the twist, lower income workers who do drink coffee tend to consume a full cup more than their better paid counterparts. This may have to do with the types of jobs these workers are likely to do, amongst other things.
1. Increasing Employee Focus and Creativity
Caffeine has a powerful impact on our cognition, enhancing our minds in a variety of ways that not only help us perform better in our work, but also help us grow mentally. One key area of enhancement is focus. We lose our ability to focus optimally throughout the day, but coffee can help us pick up the slack. Coffee can also increase our ability to learn and retain information, increase our energy levels, enhance our creativity and even strengthen our willpower.
2. Enhancing Group Performance
Do you want to bring your team together to develop dynamic solutions to your company's problems? Sit them down around a pot of coffee and watch the magic happen. Caffeine has shown to have a positive impact on group dynamics — It can foster more productive conversation and increase the involvement of all members. Plus, those in the group are more likely to leave the discussion feeling positive about their input and the participation of their peers. Coffee brings people together and brews a batch of success.
3. Increasing Employee Attention and Safety, Leading to Fewer Workplace Accidents
Groggy early morning commutes and sluggish mid-day meetings are caused by a feeling of tiredness. We know employees use coffee as a quick pick-me-up, but what exactly does coffee do to keep us alert? Caffeine actually blocks brain receptors from receiving the compound that makes us feel tired. Low doses of caffeine have been shown to improve the alertness of employees, especially those who are already tired. Higher caffeine consumption may even limit the likelihood of employee workplace accidents.
Benefits of Providing Coffee to Employees
1. Your Employees Want It — Even If They Haven't Told You
With over half of the workforce enjoying multiple cups of coffee while on the job daily, it's safe to say the majority of your employees will jump at the opportunity to drink coffee at work. With rising prices at large corporate cafés and coffee distributors, you'll give your employees coffee in a convenient way and help them save money every day.
2. Free Coffee at Work Is a Surprisingly Huge Benefit for Prospective Hires
Some major corporations offer out-of-this-world perks as part of their benefits packages. While free massages, chef-catered lunches and tickets to events are great gifts, most employees entering a company are more interested in smaller benefits. Aside from better healthcare plans and flexibility in work, perks like free snacks and free coffee at work are surprisingly serious considerations for new hires. It may be a small, affordable gesture, but it speaks volumes to professionals searching for their right career fit.
3. In-House Coffee Can Enhance Company Culture
When you have coffee available to your employees, they don't have to leave the premises to get a good cup, saving precious time. Coffee culture aside, more break time spent in the office allows your employees to have organic social interactions they would miss otherwise. Provide them with coffee, and they'll organically come together.
4. Free Coffee Is an Affordable Investment for Even the Smallest of Businesses
Consider the annual investments you make in the health, wellbeing, happiness and success of your employees. So many of these elements are deemed essential — removing one of them would negatively impact employee morale and potentially harm the company's internal or external image. Providing coffee in the workplace is a valuable investment that doesn't require a significant room in the budget. With so many options available from local coffee companies, there's a delivery system available to suit your employee's needs without draining your budget.
Level up your coffee
Make sure that your tools — from bean grinders and filters to coffee makers— are thoroughly cleaned after each use.
Rinse with clear, hot water (or wipe down thoroughly), and dry with an absorbent towel. It’s important to check that no grounds have been left to collect and that there’s no build-up of coffee oil (caffeol), which can make future cups of coffee taste bitter and rancid.
If you’re using a single-serve coffee maker, check our guide for keeping your machine in top shape.
Great coffee starts with great beans. The quality and flavor of your coffee is not only determined by your favorite brewing process, but also by the type of coffee you select. There can be a world of difference between roasts, so check out our roasting types guide.
Some of the flavor factors include:
The country and region of origin
The variety of bean - arabica, robusta - or a blend
The roast type
The texture of your grind
While there are a lot of choices, remember that there’s no right or wrong — for instance, you can choose a dark, flavorful espresso roast coffee and still have it ground to be brewed in a drip system. Have fun trying and enjoying different combinations.
Purchase coffee as soon as possible after it’s roasted. Fresh-roasted coffee is essential to a quality cup, so buy your coffee in small amounts (ideally every one to two weeks). Check out our helpful tips on how to store coffee to keep it as fresh and flavorful as possible.
And please, never reuse your coffee grounds to make coffee. Once brewed, the desirable coffee flavors have been extracted and only the bitter ones are left. Instead, check out these six ways to recycle your old grounds.
If you buy whole bean coffee, always grind your beans as close to the brew time as possible for maximum freshness. A burr or mill grinder is best because the coffee is ground to a consistent size.
A blade grinder is less preferable because some coffee will be ground more finely than the rest. If you normally grind your coffee at home with a blade grinder, try having it ground at the store with a burr grinder - you’ll be surprised at the difference! (Whichever option you use, always follow manufacturers' recommendations when using your grinder, and be mindful of any necessary safety considerations.)
The size of the grind is hugely important to the taste of your coffee. If your coffee tastes bitter, it may be over-extracted, or ground too fine. On the other hand, if your coffee tastes flat, it may be under-extracted, meaning your grind is too coarse.
(Check out this simple infographic to help you determine the the best texture for your preferred brewing method.)
If you're having the coffee ground to order, tell the professionals where you purchase your coffee exactly how you will be brewing it. Will you be using a French Press? A flat or cone drip filter? A gold mesh filter? They will grind it specifically for your preparation method.
The water you use is very important to the quality of your coffee. Use filtered or bottled water if your tap water is not good or has a strong odor or taste, such as chlorine.
If you’re using tap water, let it run a few seconds before filling your coffee pot, and be sure to use cold water. Avoid distilled or softened water.
A general guideline is called the "Golden Ratio" - one to two tablespoons of ground coffee for every six ounces of water. This can be adjusted to suit individual taste preferences.
Check the cup lines or indicators on your specific brewer to see how they actually measure. And remember that some water is lost to evaporation in certain brewing methods.
Safety first! Of course, any time you are working with heat and hot beverages, take all necessary precautions for everyone from those preparing coffee, to those being served, and drinking coffee.
Your brewer should maintain a water temperature between 195 to 205 degrees Fahrenheit for optimal extraction. Colder water will result in flat, under-extracted coffee, while water that is too hot will also cause a loss of quality in the taste of the coffee. (However, cold brew does not need any heat.)
If you are brewing the coffee manually, let the water come to a full boil, but do not over boil. Turn off the heat source and allow the water to rest a minute before pouring it over the grounds.
Coffee usually cools rapidly after being served, depending upon the container from which it is being served. And, many coffee drinkers may add cream or milk which also has a cooling effect. Ultimately, the temperature at which any individual coffee drinker will prefer their coffee is a personal preference, like so many other things that make coffee special. These are some of the reasons why it is best to serve coffee right after brewing, when it is fresh and hot – typically at a temperature of 180-185F, according to research.
Of course, with respect to drinking coffee, vs. serving, you should always allow your coffee – or any hot beverage – to reach a comfortable temperature before drinking. One study has shown that coffee drinkers typically drink their coffee at 140 degrees Fahrenheit or below.
And again, those preparing and serving coffee need to be mindful of safety, which could include factors such as the location where coffee is being served, and the coffee drinkers themselves, which can only be assessed by those preparing and serving coffee.
The amount of time that the water is in contact with the coffee grounds is another important flavor factor.
In a drip system, the contact time should be approximately 5 minutes. If you are making your coffee using a French Press, the contact time should be 2-4 minutes. Espresso has an especially brief brew time — the coffee is in contact with the water for only 20-30 seconds. Cold brew, on the other hand, should steep overnight (about 12 hours).
If you’re not happy with the taste of the final product, you're likely either:
Over-extracting - the brew time is too long
Under-extracting - the brew time is too short
Experiment with the contact time until you get the right balance for your taste.